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Salzburg Principles are the main result of the seminar organized by the Austrian Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Science and the European Association of Universities in February 2005 in Salzburg, Austria.

The aim of the seminar was to develop practical recommendations for the development of a system for training highly qualified scientific personnel in Europe.

Salzburg Principles are "ten basic principles", which should underlie further considerations on the key role of doctoral programs and the training of scientific personnel within the framework of the Bologna Process.

Ten basic principles for the third cycle

Principle one.The core component of doctoral training is the advancement of knowledge through original research. At the same time it is recognised that doctoral training must increasingly meet the needs of an employment market that is wider than academia.

Principle two. Embedding in institutional strategies and policies: universities as institutions need to assume responsibility for ensuring that the doctoral programmes and research training they offer are designed to meet new challenges and include appropriate professional career development opportunities.

Principle three. The importance of diversity: the rich diversity of doctoral programmes in Europe – including joint doctorates – is a strength which has to be underpinned by quality and sound practice.

Principle four.Doctoral candidates as early stage researchers: should be recognised as professionals – with commensurate rights - who make a key contribution to the creation of new knowledge.

Principle five. The crucial role of supervision and assessment: in respect of individual doctoral candidates, arrangements for supervision and assessment should be based on a transparent contractual framework of shared responsibilities between doctoral candidates, supervisors and the institution (and where appropriate including other partners).

Principle six. Achieving critical mass: Doctoral programmes should seek to achieve critical mass and should draw on different types of innovative practice being introduced in universities across Europe, bearing in mind that different solutions may be appropriate to different contexts and in particular across larger and smaller European countries. These range from graduate schools in major universities to international, national and regional collaboration between universities.

Principle seven. Duration: doctoral programmes should operate within appropriate time duration (three to four years full-time as a rule).

Principle eight. The promotion of innovative structures: to meet the challenge of interdisciplinary training and the developmentof transferable skills.

Principle nine. Increasing mobility: Doctoral programmes should seek to offer geographical as well as interdisciplinary and intersectoral mobility and international collaboration within an integrated framework of cooperation between universities and other partners.

Principle ten. Ensuring appropriate funding: the development of quality doctoral programmes and the successful completion by doctoral candidates requires appropriate and sustainable funding.

The original materials on the implementation of Salzburg Principles are presented below:

Ten Basic Principles for the Third Cycle_2005;

Salzburg Recommendations. European Universities’ Achievements since 2005 in Implementing the Salzburg Principles_2010.